Key figures

The figures cited in the documents « Wheat », « Barley », « Triticale », and « Maize » are provided by Arvalis Institut du végétal. The sources and their explanations are described below.

Wheat

Economic scenarios used:

  • Sales price of soft winter wheat : 150 €/tonne
  • Purchase price of nitrogen fertiliser (ammonium nitrate): 1 €/kgN
  • Purchase price of the Farmstar service should be deducted from the savings proposed.

Figures announced forthe provisional total nitrogen dose recommendation

Using Farmstar, in addition to the provisional total nitrogen dose calculation, corrects any error in estimating Pi (nitrogen absorbed by the crop at start of the assessment) by adapting to the year’s conditions and consequently getting closer to reaching the optimum field dose (see inset).

In years characterised by strong crop growth in late winter, Farmstar saves up to 20 kgN/ha while achieving the same yield potential. These figures come from a comparative study of all Farmstar recommendations delivered between 2013 and 2017, compared to the dose calculation made without using Farmstar.

In addition, in years characterised by limited crop growth in late winter, Farmstar may recommend up to an additional 20 kgN/ha to reach its yield potential, in other words a potential gain of 2q/ha compared to the traditional provisional total nitrogen dose for soft winter wheat. This yield gain estimation comes from an Arvalis study on the impact of economically optimum nitrogen rates on soft winter wheat (558 trials, 1991-2002).

Figures announced for the recommendation Lodging risk 1-2 nodes

There are different levels of risk for all fields on farmland:

Risk Level Recommended Solutions Average Cost of a Fertiliser Treatment Programme
Low Risk No regulator or 1 basic regulator 0 to 5 €/ha
Average Risk 1 regulator 14 to 18 €/ha
High Risk 1 basic regulator,then 1 additional regulator- between 1 and 2 nodes 18 to 25 €/ha

Therefore, in the event of a low risk, it is possible to save one regulator treatment, up to €18/ha. Similarly, in the event of an undetected high risk, losses can be from 15 to 25 q/ha (PA 1999/2002 Survey) €225 to 375 /ha.

Figures announced for the Nitrogen recommendation

Farmstar is a crop management tool. In short, with Farmstar it is possible to reassess crop needs during a cycle and if needed readjust the last nitrogen input dose to get closer to achieving the optimum field dose.

In Arvalis trials, in the event of under-estimating crop needs at the total dose calculation (under-fertilisation scenario), yield gains of up to 4.6 q/ha were observed for an additional dose of 21.5 kgN/ha compared to the last input. This amounts to potential savings of 48 €/ha (2014 trials, decile8 or 80% of the best trials in the event of under-fertilisation).

When the total field dose is overestimated (in the event of over-fertilisation), Farmstar can save up to 40 kgN/ha, in other words €40/ha (comparative study of all Farmstar recommendations from 2013 to 2017, compared to a dose calculation made without using Farmstar).

To ensure the optimal efficiency of Farmstar in terms of yield, it is important:

  • To monitor the provisional assessment calculation produced upstream;
  • To comply with regulations pertaining to split application of nitrogen (reserving for the 3rd input, 1st nitrogen input not too early or too high, 2nd nitrogen input to meet high needs around E1C…);
  • To be careful about nitrogen forms and nitrogen optimisation conditions (15mm of rainfall required to optimise nitrogen fertiliser).

Using Farmstar optimised protein content (Arvalis trials 2014-2015):

  • In soft wheat: using Farmstar « Protein objective » in addition to the assessment allows an average gain of + 0.4% of proteins compared to using the assessment alone;
  • In hard wheat: using Farmstar « Protein objective» in addition to the assessment allows an average gain of + 1.6 % of proteins compared to using the assessment alone.

Reaching a protein level depends, in addition to the nitrogen dose applied at the last input, on other factors including:

  • Nitrogen split application;
  • Form of fertiliser used;
  • Varietal choice;
  • Climatic factors which can’t be controlled.

Farmstar is also a variable rate nitrogen application tool. It will simply recommend a variable rate depending on the heterogeneity of the field. Trials made between 2005 and 2008 have shown that on the most heterogeneous fields, the yield gain potential for the same dose of nitrogen but spread variably according to Farmstar, can be up to 3q/ha, compared to uniform distribution.
 

The optimum dose concept for nitrogen fertilisation yield:

This is the nitrogen dose that procures 97% of the yield. Below this dose, the crop is under-fertilised and can’t reach its optimal yield. Above this dose, the consumption of nitrogen by the crop is so called “superfluous”, the nitrogen is not optimised in terms of yield. This over-fertilisation results in losses which can be damaging to the environment. The objective of a management tool is to assess this dose for the field.

Rendement et Dose Optimake

Figures announced for the recommended of the 1st septoriosis treatment

On the basis of trials carried out in 2012 and 2013, average gains of 2q/ha were achieved, in other words€30/ha, compared to a traditional fungicide programme.

Barley

Economic scenarios retained:

  • Sales price of winter barley (forage crop): €150/tonne
  • Purchase priceof nitrogen fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) : €1/kgN
  • The purchase price of the Farmstar service is to be deducted from proposed gains.

Figures announced for the recommended Provisional total nitrogen dose

Using Farmstar in addition to the provisional total nitrogen dose calculation corrects any error in estimating Pi (Nitrogen absorbed by the crop at start of assessment) by adapting to the year’s conditions and consequently getting closer to reaching the optimum field dose (see Inset).

During strong crop development years at end of winter, Farmstar saves up to 20 kgN/ha while conserving the same yield objective (comparative study of all Farmstar recommendations from 2013 to 2017, compared to a dose calculation made without using Farmstar).

In contrast, during years of weak crop growth at the end of winter, Farmstar can recommend up to an additional 20 kgN/ha to reach its yield objective. This amounts to a potential gain of approximately  3.5 q/ha compared to the calculation for the provisional total nitrogen dose alone for winter barley. This yield gain estimation comes from an Arvalis study on the impact of the economically optimum nitrogen rates on winter barley (Trials 1997 to 2015).

Figures announced for the recommendation Lodging risk at 1-2 nodes

For all fields on farmland, there are different levels of risk:

Level of Risk Recommended Solutions Average Cost of a Treatment Programme
Low risk No regulator €0€/ha
Average risk 1 basic regulator €15 to 25/ha
High risk 2 regulator treatments €25 to 35/ha

Therefore, in the event of a low risk, it is possible to save one regulator treatment, in other words up to €25/ha.

Triticale

Economic scenarios retained:

  • Sales price of winter triticale: €140/tonne
  • Purchase price of nitrogen fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) : €1/kgN
  • Purchase price of the Farmstar service is to be deducted from the gains proposed.

Figures announced for the recommendedProvisional total nitrogen dose

Using Farmstar along with theprovisional total nitrogen dose calculation corrects any estimated error in Pi (Nitrogen absorbedby the crop at the start of the assessment) by adapting to the year’s conditions and consequently getting close to the optimum field dose (see Inset).

During strong growth years at the end of the year, Farmstar saves up to 20 kgN/ha while maintaining the same yield objective. These figures come from a comparative studyof all Farmstar recommendations between 2013 and 2017, compared to a dose calculation made without Farmstar.

In contrast, during weak crop growth years at the end of winter, Farmstar can recommend up to an additional 20 kgN/ha to reach its yield objective. This amounts to a potential gain of approximately 3.5 q/ha compared to the provisional total nitrogen dose calculation alone for winter triticale. This yield gain estimation comes from an Arvalis study on the impact of the economically optimum nitrogen rates on winter triticale (Trials 1997 to 2007).

Maize

Figures announced for the recommendation Irrigation management using Irré-LIS®

In sufficient volume of water, compared to the systematic former irrigation method used, Irré-LIS® saves from 20 to 60mm of water without a yield decrease (saving a water treatment, which means saving time and more than €20/ha). The potential savings featured in the Farmstar brochure amount to a saving of two water inputs, or €40/ha.